Writing Your First VBA Function in Excel
About User Defined Functions
Excel provides the user with a large collection of ready-made
functions, more than enough to satisfy the average user. Many
more can be added by installing the various add-ins that are
Most calculations can be achieved with what is provided, but it
isn't long before you find yourself wishing that there was a
function that did a particular job, and you can't find anything
suitable in the list. You need a UDF.
A UDF (User Defined Function) is simply a function that you
create yourself with VBA. UDFs are often called "Custom Functions".
A UDF can remain in a code module attached to
a workbook, in which case it will always be available when that
workbook is open. Alternatively you can create your own add-in
containing one or more functions that you can install into Excel
just like a commercial add-in.
UDFs can be accessed by code modules too. Often UDFs are created
by developers to work solely within the code of a VBA procedure and
the user is never aware of their existence.
Like any function, the UDF can be as simple or as complex as you
want. Let's start with an easy one...
A Function to Calculate the Area of a Rectangle
Yes, I know you could do this in your head! The concept is very
simple so you can concentrate on the technique.
Suppose you need a function to calculate the area of a rectangle.
You look through Excel's collection of functions, but there isn't
one suitable. This is the calculation to be done:
AREA = LENGTH x WIDTH
Open a new workbook and then open the Visual Basic Editor (Tools
> Macro > Visual Basic Editor or ALT+F11).
||You will need a module in which to write your function so
choose Insert > Module. Into the empty module type:
Function Area and press ENTER.
The Visual Basic Editor completes the line for you and adds an
End Function line as if you were creating a subroutine.
So far it looks like this...
Place your cursor between the brackets after "Area". If you ever
wondered what the brackets are for, you are about to find out! We
are going to specify the "arguments" that our function will take (an
argument is a piece of information needed to do the
calculation). Type Length as double, Width as double and
click in the empty line underneath. Note that as you type, a scroll
box pops-up listing all the things appropriate to what you are
This feature is called Auto List Members. If it doesn't
appear either it is switched off (turn it on at Tools > Options >
Editor) or you might have made a typing error earlier. It is a
very useful check on your syntax. Find the item you need and
double-click it to insert it into your code. You can ignore it and
just type if you want. Your code now looks like this...
Function Area(Length As Double, Width As Double)
Declaring the data type of the arguments is not obligatory but
makes sense. You could have typed Length, Width and left it
as that, but warning Excel what data type to expect helps your code
run more quickly and picks up errors in input. The double
data type refers to number (which can be very large) and allows
Now for the calculation itself. In the empty line first press the
TAB key to indent your code (making it easier to read) and
type Area = Length * Width. Here's the completed code...
Function Area(Length As Double, Width As Double)
Area = Length * Width
You will notice another of the Visual Basic Editor's help
features pop up as you were typing, Auto Quick Info...
It isn't relevant here. Its purpose is to help you write
functions in VBA, by telling you what arguments are required.
You can test your function right away. Switch to the Excel window
and enter figures for Length and Width in separate cells. In a third
cell enter your function as if it were one of the built-in ones. In
this example cell A1 contains the length (17) and cell B1 the width
(6.5). In C1 I typed =area(A1,B1) and the new function
calculated the area (110.5)...
Sometimes, a function's arguments can be optional. In this
example we could make the Width argument optional. Supposing
the rectangle happens to be a square with Length and Width equal. To
save the user having to enter two arguments we could let them enter
just the Length and have the function use that value twice (i.e.
multiply Length x Length). So the function knows when it can do this
we must include an IF Statement to help it decide.
Change the code so that it looks like this...
Function Area(Length As Double, Optional Width As Variant)
If IsMissing(Width) Then
Area = Length * Length
Area = Length * Width
Note that the data type for Width has been changed to Variant
to allow for null values. The function now allows the user to enter
just one argument e.g. =area(A1). The IF Statement in
the function checks to see if the Width argument has been supplied
and calculates accordingly...
Now for a more practical example...
A Function to Calculate Fuel Consumption
I like to keep a check on my car's fuel consumption so when I buy
fuel I make a note of the mileage and how much fuel it takes to fill
the tank. Here in the UK fuel is sold in litres. The car's milometer
(OK, so it's an odometer) records distance in miles. And because I'm
too old and stupid to change, I only understand MPG (miles per
Now if you think that's all a bit sad, how about this. When I get
home I open up Excel and enter the data into a worksheet that
calculates the MPG for me and charts the car's performance.
The calculation is the number of miles the car has travelled
since the last fill-up divided by the number of gallons of fuel
MPG = (MILES THIS FILL - MILES LAST FILL) /
GALLONS OF FUEL
but because the fuel comes in litres and there are 4.546 litres
in a gallon..
MPG = (MILES THIS FILL - MILES LAST FILL) / LITRES
OF FUEL x 4.546
Here's how I wrote the function...
Function MPG(StartMiles As Integer, FinishMiles As Integer, Litres As Single)
MPG = (FinishMiles - StartMiles) / Litres * 4.546
and here's how it looks on the worksheet...
Not all functions perform mathematical calculations. Here's one
that provides information...
I am often asked if there is a date function that gives the day
of the week as text (e.g. Monday). The answer is no*, but it's quite
easy to create one. (*Addendum: Did I say no?
Check the note below to see the function I forgot!).
Excel has the WEEKDAY function, which returns the day of the week
as a number from 1 to 7. You get to choose which day is 1 if you
don't like the default (Sunday). In the example below the function
returns "5" which I happen to know means "Thursday".
But I don't want to see a number, I want to see "Thursday". I
could modify the calculation by adding a VLOOKUP function that
referred to a table somewhere containing a list of numbers and a
corresponding list of day names. Or I could have the whole thing
self-contained with multiple nested IF statements. Too complicated!
The answer is a custom function...
Function DayName(InputDate As Date)
Dim DayNumber As Integer
DayNumber = Weekday(InputDate, vbSunday)
Select Case DayNumber
DayName = "Sunday"
DayName = "Monday"
DayName = "Tuesday"
DayName = "Wednesday"
DayName = "Thursday"
DayName = "Friday"
DayName = "Saturday"
I've called my function "DayName" and it takes a single argument,
which I call "InputDate" which (of course) has to be a date. Here's
how it works...
- The first line of the function declares a variable that I have
called "DayNumber" which will be an Integer (i.e. a whole number).
- The next line of the function assigns a value to that variable
using Excel's WEEKDAY function. The value will be a number between
1 and 7. Although the default is 1=Sunday, I've included it anyway
- Finally a Case Statement examines the value of the
variable and returns the appropriate piece of text.
Here's how it looks on the worksheet...
Accessing Your Custom Functions
If a workbook has a VBA code module attached to it
that contains custom functions, those functions can be easily
addressed within the same workbook as demonstrated in the examples
above. You use the function name as if it were one of Excel's
You can also find the functions listed in the
Function Wizard (sometimes called the Paste Function tool). Use the
wizard to insert a function in the normal way (Insert > Function).
Scroll down the list of function categories to find
User Defined and select it to see a list of available UDFs...
You can see that the user defined functions lack any
description other than the unhelpful "No help available" message,
but you can add a short description...
Make sure you are in the workbook that contains the
functions. Go to Tools > Macro > Macros. You won't see your
functions listed here but Excel knows about them! In the Macro
Name box at the top of the dialog, type the name of the function,
then click the dialog's Options button. If the button is
greyed out either you've spelled the function name wrong, or
you are in the wrong workbook, or it doesn't exist! This opens
another dialog into which you can enter a short description of the
function. Click OK to save the description and (here's the
confusing bit) click Cancel to close the Macro dialog box.
Remember to Save the workbook containing the function. Next time you
go to the Function Wizard your UDF will have a description...
Like macros, user defined functions can be used in any other workbook as long as the workbook containing
them is open. However it is not good practice to do this. Entering
the function in a different workbook is not simple. You have to add
its host workbook's name to the function name. This isn't difficult
if you rely on the Function Wizard, but clumsy to write out
manually. The Function Wizard shows the full names of any UDFs in
If you open the workbook in which you used the
function at a time when the workbook containing the function is
closed, you will see an error message in the cell in which you used
the function. Excel has forgotten about it! Open the function's host
workbook, recalculate, and all is fine again. Fortunately there is a
If you want to write User Defined Functions for use
in more than one workbook the best method is to create an Excel
Add-In. Find out how to do this in the tutorial
Build an Excel Add-In.
I really ought to know better! Never, ever, say
never! Having told you that there isn't a function that provides the
day's name, I have now remembered the one that can. Look at this
The TEXT function returns the value of a cell as text in a specific
number format. So in the example I could have chosen =TEXT(A1,"ddd")
to return "Thu", =TEXT(A1,"mmmm") to return "September" etc.
The Excel's help has some more examples of ways to use this
^back to DayName